Lu, L., et al. Comparing the Pharmacokinetics of 2 Novel Intravenous Tramadol Dosing Regimens to Oral Tramadol: A Randomized 3-Arm Crossover Study. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development. October 2019.
Avenue Therapeutics White Paper. Pain Management in the Postoperative Setting. 2018.
Tramadol’s use in the perioperative setting is reviewed in https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10929933
In addition, the clinical trials summarized below show that the overall analgesic efficacy of parenteral tramadol was similar to that of morphine and meperidine and comparable or superior to that of pentazocine:
- In a clinical trial published in Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research, 70 patients were treated with parenteral morphine or tramadol following abdominal surgery. Both drugs gave rapid and constant pain relief. The study investigators concluded that tramadol given by intramuscular injection has postoperative analgesic activity similar to morphine, and was better tolerated. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9604144
- In a clinical trial published in Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 48 patients after total hip or knee replacement were randomly distributed into three groups and received tramadol, meperidine or saline in a double-blind manner. The conclusion of the study was that meperidine and tramadol produced comparable analgesia, but meperidine induced sedation and respiratory depression while tramadol did not. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8738073
- In a clinical trial published in International Journal of Pharmacological Research, a total of 50 adults were given tramadol or pentazocine by intramuscular injection for three days post-surgery. The first dose of tramadol was significantly more effective than pentazocine after the first hour. Study investigators concluded that final judgements on efficacy and acceptability were in favor of tramadol while both produced good analgesia. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9675626